Java-Based Selenium Automation: Best Practices for Test Framework Development

Java Selenium

Online applications are getting more and more complex as digital technologies are improving continuously. Any web application that wants to compete in today’s market needs to provide a seamless user experience.

To thoroughly test new features across platforms presents a new challenge for developers and QA engineers. As a result, automation testing is required. However, carrying out automation testing demands a thorough knowledge of a wide range of automation frameworks and technologies. Selenium is the first tool that springs to mind when considering automating the testing of web applications among a variety of other tools. It is a reliable, well-known open-source tool that has allowed QA engineers to reduce manual testing.

In addition to being free and open source, Selenium is also one of the most popular automated testing methods because of its simplicity of use and superior functionality.   It makes it possible to run thorough tests more quickly and supports several programming languages for test automation, including Java, C#, Ruby, Python, and others. 

Given that each programming language has a unique set of properties, picking the best one for test automation may be challenging. The best language to use will rely on the application being tested as well as several other aspects, including the language’s support community, test automation frameworks that are available, usability, elegance, and building seamless integration.

Java is the language that competes the most with others for Selenium binding. We will talk about Java-based Selenium automation in this article. We will also highlight a few best practices that should be familiar with to improve Selenium testing and obtain effective results. Before we continue, let’s quickly review what the Selenium framework and Java are, and the reasons Java is preferred to Selenium.

Also Read: Java Selenium WebDriver: Tips and Tricks for Robust Test Automation


Selenium is an open-source test automation framework used to automate the testing of web applications. The easy interface enables the creation of Selenium test scripts for web applications running on a variety of platforms, including Windows, Linux, and browsers like Chrome, Safari, Firefox, and Mozilla, in a variety of programming languages, including Ruby, Python, Java, C#, and more. because Selenium understands browser language it may be used to drive browser activity such as typing into a search bar, pressing buttons, entering text into any form box, scrolling down a page, and so on.

Selenium is not a single tool; rather, it is a suite of tools, including Selenium IDE, Selenium WebDriver, and Selenium Grid, each of these tools offers a unique set of functionalities. Selenium effectively satisfies the requirements of many testers and developers because these tools support a variety of browsers, operating systems, and programming languages. Selenium also has a large and active user base that offers free technical support.

Java appears to be the most often utilized programming language out of all those that can be used to create scripts for Selenium test automation. Each Java and Selenium has its unique collection of features. In contrast to other languages, Selenium with Java is a popular and favored language among automation testers.

Let’s first explore why Java is favored with Selenium before moving on.

Why use Java and Selenium

Writing Selenium automation scripts can be done in a variety of languages, including Java. The best aspect of this is that one can fully explore Selenium Automation tools without being an expert in Java. To build better Selenium Scripts, it’s acceptable to be knowledgeable with Java concepts.

To execute automated tests on many web browsers, Selenium and Java binding is ideal because of their many advantages.

Here are a few of the prime reasons for using Java and Selenium.

It is much simpler to integrate Selenium testing with Java, which makes it ideal for running automated tests across many web browsers. Considering all of its advantages, Java is the programming language that Selenium specialists use the most frequently.

Due to a large number of plug-ins, APIs, and readily accessible frameworks and libraries, Java has become the most popular language. For seamless test automation, these resources support Java.

It is a universal language that works on all platforms. It takes advantage of the Java Virtual Machine, which renders it a platform-independent language that enables Java applications to execute in any operating environment where JVM is installed.

Because Java executes applications more quickly than any other programming language, it is widely used by many organizations and testers. Most importantly, Java is a plus when it comes to fixing code issues. The statistical writing style of Java makes it very useful for providing feedback. It also facilitates effective error management.

The writing of test cases is actively supported by a large community of Java developers. With so many specialists in the field, sharing knowledge is made simpler, this benefits Selenium testers as well as the growth of the Java community.

Best practices for using Selenium with Java for test automation

To get the most out of test automation, the following recommended practices should be kept in mind when designing Java-based Selenium tests:

Choose the right locators

Selecting locators is essential for testing the desired web components of a particular application. QAs must be skilled at using various locator techniques. The tests will fail if the test scripts are unable to identify the necessary elements, making them unstable and inaccurate. The application is more reliable and runs more quickly when the proper Selenium locators are used.

Add the Wait Commands

Web browsers take some time to load specific web pages or web features. The speed at which a website loads can vary depending on network issues, server problems, or machine configurations. To prevent failure, it is crucial to set the script with a defined halt time. For this purpose, Selenium offers explicit or implicit waits. Each of these waits stops the script’s execution until it locates the element. When it locates the component, it resumes the script’s execution.

Take screenshots to report a test failure

QA testers must present screenshot evidence to prove their testing failure. The same is true for Selenium-based automated testing. If a test fails, it is crucial to identify the cause, whether it be a defect in the AUT or a mistake in the code. The best course of action in this situation as evidence of testing for failures is to have the corresponding screenshots. This will save developers time and effort by making it simpler for them to look into and pinpoint the reason why a test failed.

Similar to this, from the perspective of reporting, these screenshots show to be worthwhile when testers need to explain the problems to the developers. It is also beneficial to share reports with them, to establish the stability of the application. To do this, Selenium has a built-in reporting mechanism that integrates with frameworks like TestNG and also enables taking screenshots.

Implement the Page Object Model.

The user interface (UI) of a web application will inevitably change as a result of implementing fresh updates regularly. The locators connected to particular UI elements will also change.

This necessitates the creation of all the test cases for the same page again, which can be time-consuming for QAs.

This issue can be resolved by writing test scripts utilizing the Page Object Model. It is not necessary to continually modify all test scripts while using this design pattern. Each web page is viewed as a class file in this case, and each class file has equivalent web elements. This method simplifies test maintenance and aids in the elimination of code duplication. Moreover, QAs can utilize the current code and make minor adjustments.

Before automating tests, plan and create them

Creating appropriate test scenarios and test cases in advance is a smart practice before beginning with testing automation. QA engineers must consider all possible outcomes and develop in-depth test cases from the perspective of end users. Going straight into automation without a solid test strategy can be risky in the long run. 

For Selenium test automation to succeed, a test design, as well as a strategy and plan, are essential. For efficient full-proof testing of online applications, QAs should concentrate on developing test architecture, which describes the structure of the test program and how the test program will be maintained. Testing professionals may write test scripts in a variety of computer languages thanks to Selenium test automation.

Use assertions to validate tests

Writing effective tests requires validating them first, like how one would write a test case and include both the predicted and actual outcomes. In the same way, one must use the assertions offered by other frameworks like TestNG and JUnit to support the test cases in Selenium. The testing procedure is incomplete if the assertions are not employed because they do not verify the accuracy of the test build.

Also Read: Jest Testing in the Cloud: Optimizing Test Automation Performance

Use LambdaTest Real Browsers to run Selenium tests

Virtual browsers are accessible online for Selenium automation testing across platforms, however, to meet the rising need for speedier delivery, precise results can only be anticipated when tests are done on real browsers. Website testing under actual user circumstances has a significant effect. This enables teams to find the most issues possible before releasing a reliable application.

Using cloud-based digital experience testing like LambdaTest may make this work easier. It gives testers quick access to a cloud Selenium Grid of more than 3000 real devices, browsers, and operating system combinations online. Enabling the test team to do Selenium testing with Java on selected device-browser combinations. LambdaTest is designed to be an all-encompassing framework for test automation that supports testing for both web and mobile applications.

All Selenium-supported frameworks and programming languages are compatible with LambdaTest’s online Selenium Grid for test automation. Also, with LambdaTest, testers may run Selenium-Java tests concurrently to significantly speed up test performance. Testers may quickly execute automated tests by running them simultaneously across thousands of devices with different configurations, reducing the time between development and production.

LambdaTest is a secure, reliable platform for cross-browser compatibility testing that makes it simple for Testers to carry out thorough cross-browser and device testing across platforms. Additionally, it offers continuous testing, data-driven testing, regression testing, functional testing, and many more. This versatile and all-encompassing platform enables testers to organize, design, build, run, and analyze tests easily.

Moreover, LambdaTest may be seamlessly linked with CI/CD systems such as Jenkins, Travis, Circle CI, and others to enhance collaboration and build a delivery pipeline free of bugs.


In conclusion, it can be said that Selenium is a very well-liked tool for automating the most tedious testing activities and that when used properly, it may improve the accuracy and reliability of the tests. Because Selenium with Java includes a variety of frameworks, users can make minor adjustments as per their needs rather than updating the entire code.

Both developers and testers have found Selenium Automation with Java to be quite helpful. As an open-source tool, it offers the chance to shorten execution times, eliminate manual repetition, and reduce the possibility of human error. The best method to ensure that apps always work at their best and provide the highest level of user satisfaction is to automate testing using Selenium and Java.

You might like:


Mukul is the Founder Of "Technogone" he has a very deep interest in all technology topics and games whatsoever. his passion, making ability make him stand apart from others.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *